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a sampling of our scientific references

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  1.  Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous substrates of brain CYP2D". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 724: 211–218. PMID 24374199doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.12.025. The highest level of brain CYP2D activity was found in the substantia nigra ... The in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the contribution of the alternative CYP2D-mediated dopamine synthesis to the concentration of this neurotransmitter although the classic biosynthetic route to dopamine from tyrosine is active. ... Tyramine levels are especially high in the basal ganglia and limbic system, which are thought to be related to individual behavior and emotion (Yu et al., 2003c). ... Rat CYP2D isoforms (2D2/2D4/2D18) are less efficient than human CYP2D6 for the generation of dopamine from p-tyramine. The Km values of the CYP2D isoforms are as follows: CYP2D6 (87–121 μm) ≈ CYP2D2 ≈ CYP2D18 > CYP2D4 (256 μm) for m-tyramine and CYP2D4 (433 μm) > CYP2D2 ≈ CYP2D6 > CYP2D18 (688 μm) for p-tyramine

  2. Nelson DL, Cox MM (2000). Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry (3rd ed.). New York: Worth Publishing. ISBN 1-57259-153-6.

  3. Gibbs RA, Rogers J, Katze MG, Bumgarner R, Weinstock GM, Mardis ER, et al. (April 2007). "Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome". Science (pdf). 316 (5822): 222–34. PMID 17431167doi:10.1126/science.1139247.

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  6. Mortell KH, Anderson DJ, Lynch JJ, Nelson SL, Sarris K, McDonald H, Sabet R, Baker S, Honore P, Lee CH, Jarvis MF, Gopalakrishnan M (March 2006). "Structure-activity relationships of alpha-amino acid ligands for the alpha2delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 16 (5): 1138–41. PMID 16380257doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.11.108.

  7. Glushakov AV, Dennis DM, Morey TE, Sumners C, Cucchiara RF, Seubert CN, Martynyuk AE (2002). "Specific inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function in rat hippocampal neurons by L-phenylalanine at concentrations observed during phenylketonuria". Molecular Psychiatry. 7 (4): 359–67. PMID 11986979doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4000976.

  8.  b Glushakov AV, Dennis DM, Sumners C, Seubert CN, Martynyuk AE (April 2003). "L-phenylalanine selectively depresses currents at glutamatergic excitatory synapses". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 72 (1): 116–24. PMID 12645085doi:10.1002/jnr.10569.

  9. Sprenger GA (2007). "Aromatic Amino Acids". Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Pathways, Regulation and Metabolic Engineering (1st ed.). Springer. pp. 106–113. ISBN 978-3-540-48595-7.

  10. Kmieciak-Kołada K Felińska W Stachura Z Majchrzak H Herman ZS  (January 1987) “Concentration of biogenic amines and their metabolites in different parts of brain after experimental cerebral concussion”  Polish Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy

  11. Savola, O. and Hillbom, M. (2003), Early predictors of post-concussion symptoms in patients with mild head injury. European Journal of Neurology, 10: 175–181. doi: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2003.00552.x

  1. Huger, F. and Patrick, G. (1979), EFFECT OF CONCUSSIVE HEAD INJURY ON CENTRAL CATECHOLAMINE LEVELS AND SYNTHESIS RATES IN RAT BRAIN REGIONS . Journal of Neurochemistry, 33: 89–95. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1979.tb11710.x

  2. Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Tung-Tai Kuo, Jonathan Miller, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J. Hoffer, Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury on Dopaminergic Transmission, Cell Transplantation, 2017, 26, 7, 1156

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  9. Neurobehavioral Guidelines Working Group, Warden DL, Gordon B, McAllister TW, Silver JM, Barth JT, Bruns J, Drake A, Gentry T, Jagoda A, Katz DI, . Guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2006;23(10):1468–1501.

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  11. Xiong Y, Mahmood A, Chopp M. Animal models of traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14(2):128–142

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  13. Wagner AK, Sokoloski JE, Ren D, Chen X, Khan AS, Zafonte RD, Michael AC, Dixon CE. Controlled cortical impact injury affects dopaminergic transmission in the rat striatum. J Neurochem. 2005;95(2):457–465.

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  15. Smith DH, Soares HD, Pierce JS, Perlman KG, Saatman KE, Meaney DF, Dixon CE, McIntosh TK. A model of parasagittal controlled cortical impact in the mouse: cognitive and histopathologic effects. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12(2):169–178.

  16. Elder GA, Cristian A. Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury: mechanisms of injury and impact on clinical care. Mt Sinai J Med. 2009;76(2):111–118.

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  18. Davidson J, Cusimano MD, Bendena WG. Post-traumatic brain injury: genetic susceptibility to outcome. Neuroscientist 2015;21(4):424–441.

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  22. Bennett ER, Reuter–Rice K, Laskowitz DT. Chapter 9 Genetic influences in traumatic brain injury translational research in traumatic brain injury. In: Laskowitz D, Grant G, editors. Translational research in traumatic brain injury. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group; 2016.

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  33. Dunlop BW, Nemeroff CB. The Role of Dopamine in the Pathophysiology of Depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry.2007;64(3):327–337. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.3.327

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  35. Mental health problems and the presentation of minor illnesses: Data from a 30-year follow-up in general practice  Tim Olde Hartman, Eric van Rijswijk, Hiske van Ravesteijn, Lieke Hassink-Franke, Hans Bor, Evelyn van Weel-Baumgarten & Peter Lucassen  European Journal of General Practice Vol. 14 , Iss. sup1,2008

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Clinical Neurophysiology , Volume 116 , Issue 9 , 2001 - 2025

  1. Phosphorylation of Tau by Fyn: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

Gloria Lee, Ramasamy Thangavel, Vandana M. Sharma, Joel M. Litersky, Kiran Bhaskar, Sandy M. Fang, Lana H. Do, Athena Andreadis, Gary Van Hoesen, Hanna Ksiezak-Reding

Journal of Neuroscience 3 March 2004, 24 (9) 2304-2312; 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4162-03.2004

  1. Tau protein isoforms, phosophorylation and role in neurodegenerative disorders

Luc Buée,Thierry Bussière,Valérie Buée-Scherrer,André Delacourte,Patrick R. Hof,

Brain Research Reviews, Elsevier, August 2000

  1.  Tau Suppression in a Neurodegenerative Mouse Model Improves Memory Function BY K. SANTACRUZ, J. LEWIS, T. SPIRES, J. PAULSON, L. KOTILINEK, M. INGELSSON, A. GUIMARAES, M. DETURE, M. RAMSDEN, E. MCGOWAN, C. FORSTER, M. YUE, J. ORNE, C. JANUS, A. MARIASH, M. KUSKOWSKI, B. HYMAN, M. HUTTON, K. H. ASHE SCIENCE15 JUL 2005 : 476-481

  2. Magnesium Protects Cognitive Functions and Synaptic Plasticity in Streptozotocin-Induced Sporadic Alzheimer’s Model  Zhi-Peng Xu , Li Li , Jian Bao, Zhi-Hao Wang, Juan Zeng, En-Jie Liu, Xiao-Guang Li, Rong-Xi Huang, Di Gao, Meng-Zhu Li, Yao Zhang, Gong-Ping Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang , Published: September 30, 2014 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108645

  3. Martorana, Alessandro, and Giacomo Koch. “‘Is Dopamine Involved in Alzheimer’s Disease?’” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 6 (2014): 252. PMC. Web. 3 Sept. 2017.

  4. Targeting norepinephrine in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, Becky Kinkead, William T Hu, Markus P Kummer, Thea Hammerschmidt, Michael T Heneka, David Weinshenker , Allan I Levey Alzheimer's Research & Therapy20135:21

  5. Morley, Wendy A., and Stephanie Seneff. “Diminished Brain Resilience Syndrome: A Modern Day Neurological Pathology of Increased Susceptibility to Mild Brain Trauma, Concussion, and Downstream Neurodegeneration.” Surgical Neurology International 5 (2014): 97. PMC. Web. 3 Sept. 2017.

  6. Bales JW, Kline AE, Wagner AK, Dixon CE. Targeting Dopamine in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury. The open drug discovery journal. 2010;2:119-128. doi:10.2174/1877381801002010119.

  7. Bales JW, Wagner AK, Kline AE, Dixon CE. Persistent cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: A dopamine hypothesis. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. 2009;33(7):981-1003. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.03.011.

  8. Understanding the Concussion Epidemic: The Importance of Nourishing the Brain AUGUST 19, 2016 BY MERINDA TELLER, MPH, PHD https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/modern-diseases/understanding-concussion-epidemic-importance-nourishing-brain/

  9. Daneshvar DH, Nowinski CJ, McKee A, Cantu RC. The epidemiology of sport-related concussion. Clin Sports Med 2011;30(1):1-17.

  10. Marshall CM. Sports-related concussion: A narrative review of the literature. J Can Chiropr Assoc2012;56(4):299-310.

  11. Danbolt NC. Glutamate as a neurotransmitter—an overview. The Neurotransporter Group: Dynamics of extracellular transmitter amino acids. Oslo, Norway: Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience. http://neurotransporter.org/glutamate.html.

  12. Seneff S, Swanson N, Li C. Aluminum and glyphosate can synergistically induce pineal gland pathology: Connection to gut dysbiosis and neurological disease. Agricultural Sciences 2015;6:42-70.

  13. Magi S, Castaldo P, Macrì ML, et al. Intracellular Calcium Dysregulation: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease. BioMed Research International. 2016;2016:6701324. doi:10.1155/2016/6701324.

  14. The nature of the parkinsonism-dementia complex and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of Guam and magnesium deficiency Department of Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, 2-6 Musashidai, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8526, Japan Received 2 February 2005, Revised 14 February 2005, Accepted 14 February 2005, Available online 9 May 2005.

  15. Influence of brain concussion on dopaminergic neuron and nerve fiber in rats(cba:607211) Wu Chunyun Yu Jianyun Lin Haiying Guo Zeyun Xu Bingying Li Ping Zhao Xudong   Chinese Journal of Anatomy [01 Jan 2006, 29(1):72-75] http://europepmc.org/abstract/cba/607211\

  16. Chan-Palay, V. and Asan, E. (1989), Alterations in catecholamine neurons of the locus coeruleus in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia and depression. J. Comp. Neurol., 287: 373–392. doi:10.1002/cne.902870308

  17. Kim, C.-H., Zabetian, C. P., Cubells, J. F., Cho, S., Biaggioni, I., Cohen, B. M., Robertson, D. and Kim, K.-S. (2002), Mutations in the dopamine β-hydroxylase gene are associated with human norepinephrine deficiency. Am. J. Med. Genet., 108: 140–147. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10196

  18. Espay, A. J., LeWitt, P. A. and Kaufmann, H. (2014), Norepinephrine deficiency in Parkinson's disease: The case for noradrenergic enhancement. Mov Disord., 29: 1710–1719. doi:10.1002/mds.26048

  19. ***Genetic Basis of Autonomic Dysfunction, Indu Taneja, David Robertson, Seminars in Neurology, Thieme, Jan 1, 2003

  20. ***Joseph C Maroon, MD, Jeffrey Bost, PA-C; Concussion Management at the NFL, College, High School, and Youth Sports Levels, Neurosurgery, Volume 58, Issue CN_suppl_1, 1 September 2011, Pages 51–56, https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182269efe

  21. Blum K, Oscar-Berman M, Stuller E, et al. Neurogenetics and Nutrigenomics of Neuro-Nutrient Therapy for Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Clinical Ramifications as a Function of Molecular Neurobiological Mechanisms. Journal of addiction research & therapy. 2012;3(5):139-. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.1000139.

  22. Pyruvat carboxylase deficiency – therapeutic concept of a basic defect of neurotransmissionB Gebhardt 1, S Parbel 1, S Dittrich 1, S Vlaho 1, H Böhles 1, M Kieslich 1Department of Pediatrics, J.W.Goethe University of Frankfurt/Main, Germany  Neuropediatrics 2004; 35 - P75
    DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-819447

  23. Vitamin D, Glutamine, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Close Staff Supervision Reduce Mortality Rate at a Level I Trauma Center, Global Journal of Medical and Clinical Case Reports, Dates: Received: 03 March, 2017; Accepted: 08 March, 2017; Published: 09 March, 2017, L Ray Matthews1*, Yusuf Ahmed2, Omar K Danner2, Golda Kwaysi2, Dianne Dennis-Griggs2, Keren Aviva Bashan-Gilzenrat2, Jonathan Nguyen2, Ed W Childs2, Nekelisha Prayor2, Peter Rhee2 and Kenneth L Wilson2 , Morehouse School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, 720 Westview Drive, Atlanta, USA department of Clinical Epidemiology, SIDRA Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar, USA 
    *Corresponding author: L Ray Matthews, Morehouse School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, 720 Westview Drive, Atlanta, USA, Tel: (404)616-1415; Fax: (404)616-1417; E-mail: lematthews@msm edu; rmatt63@yahoo.com

  24. Very brief summary of Cognitive decline Treatment : Vitamin D intervention slows or stops progression, https://www.vitamindwiki.com/Alzheimers-Cognition+-+Overview

  25. ***  emailed… Nutritional Supplements for the Treatment and Prevention of Sports-Related Concussion—Evidence Still Lacking, Trojian, Thomas H. MD, MMB, FACSM1; Wang, David H. MD, MS2; Leddy, John J. MD, FACSM, FACP3 Current Sports Medicine Reports: July/August 2017 - Volume 16 - Issue 4 - p 247–255  doi: 10.1249/JSR.0000000000000387  Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Family, Community & Preventative Medicine, Drexel University, College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19127; 2Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, Elite Sports Medicine, Farmington, CT; and 3UBMD Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, SUNY Buffalo Buffalo, NY - Address for correspondence: Thomas H. Trojian, MD, MMB, FACSM, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Family, Community & Preventative Medicine, Drexel University, College of Medicine, 10 Shurs Lane, Suite 301, Philadelphia, PA 19127; E-mail: Thomas.Trojian@drexelmed.edu.

  26. The Dementias, Karen Ritchie, Simon Lovestone, The Lancet, Elsevier, 30 November 2002

  27. Selyanina, N. V., and OA EROSHINA. "The Role of Neurotransmitters and Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Acute Traumatic Brain Injury." NN Burdenko Journal of Neurosurgery 6 (2013): 19-23.

  28. Nyaz Didehbani, C. Munro Cullum, Sethesh Mansinghani, Heather Conover, John Hart, Jr; Depressive Symptoms and Concussions in Aging Retired NFL Players, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 28, Issue 5, 1 August 2013, Pages 418–424, https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/act028

  29. Leathwood PD, Pollet P (1982). "Diet-induced mood changes in normal populations". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 17 (2): 147–54. PMID 6764931doi:10.1016/0022-3956(82)90016-4

  30.  Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF (1994). "Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress". Brain Res. Bull. 33 (3): 319–23. PMID 8293316doi:10.1016/0361-9230(94)90200-3

  31.  Lieberman HR, Corkin S, Spring BJ, Wurtman RJ, Growdon JH (1985). "The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior". Am J Clin Nutr. 42 (2): 366–370. PMID 4025206

  32. Hao S, Avraham Y, Bonne O, Berry EM (2001). "Separation-induced body weight loss, impairment in alternation behavior, and autonomic tone: effects of tyrosine". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 68(2): 273–81. PMID 11267632doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(00)00448-2

  33. Reinstein DK, Lehnert H, Wurtman RJ (1985). "Dietary tyrosine suppresses the rise in plasma corticosterone following acute stress in rats". Life Sci. 37 (23): 2157–63. PMID 4068899doi:10.1016/0024-3205(85)90566-1

  34. Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, Cloin PA, Langefeld JJ (1999). "Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course". Brain Res. Bull. 48 (2): 203–9. PMID 10230711doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00163-4

  35. Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, Young A, Lieberman HR (2007). "Tyrosine supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold exposure". Physiology and Behavior. 92 (4): 575–82. PMID 17585971doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.003

  36. Thomas JR, Lockwood PA, Singh A, Deuster PA (1999). "Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 64 (3): 495–500. PMID 10548261doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(99)00094-5

  37. Lütke-Eversloh T, Santos CN, Stephanopoulos G. "Perspectives of biotechnological production of L-tyrosine and its applications". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 77 (4): 751–62. PMID 17968539doi:10.1007/s00253-007-1243-y

  38. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Levels in Affected Versus Unaffected Limbs in Sympathetically Maintained Pain. Harden, R. N. M.D.; Duc, T. A. M.D.; Williams, T. R. B.S.; Coley, D. R.N.; Cate, J. C. M.D.; Gracely, R. H. PH.D. Clinical Journal of Pain: December 1994

  39. Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: a meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies Ruhé, H G; Mason, N S; Schene, A H. Molecular Psychiatry; New York12.4 (Apr 2007): 331-59.

  40. Lambert G, Johansson M, Ågren H, Friberg P. Reduced Brain Norepinephrine and Dopamine Release in Treatment-Refractory Depressive IllnessEvidence in Support of the Catecholamine Hypothesis of Mood Disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(8):787–793. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.8.787

  41. DL-phenylalanine markedly potentiates opiate analgesia – an example of nutrient/pharmaceutical up-regulation of the endogenous analgesia system, Brampton Pain Clinic, Bramalea, Ontario, Canada Pantox Laboratories, San Diego, CA, USA Received 17 March 1999, Accepted 18 October 1999, Available online 25 May 2002.

  42. DL-phenylalanine markedly potentiates opiate analgesia – an example of nutrient/pharmaceutical up-regulation of the endogenous analgesia system, Brampton Pain Clinic, Bramalea, Ontario, Canada Pantox Laboratories, San Diego, CA, USA Received 17 March 1999, Accepted 18 October 1999, Available online 25 May 2002

  43. DL-phenylalanine in depressed patients: An open study, H. Beckmann, M. A. Strauss, E. Ludolph Journal of Neural Transmission June 1977, Volume 41, Issue 2–3, pp 123–134

  44. Use of Neurotransmitter Precursors for Treatment of Depression by Stephen Meyers, MS, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3548/0f6987f39d42ab7ff28d2f43bdc5ce3d945a.pdf

  45. Ross, J. (1997). Alternative treatments for addiction and eating disorders. The Humanistic Psychologist, 25(2), 162-181.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08873267.1997.9986879

  46. Some Effects of Amino Acid Deficiencies on Antibody Formation in the Rat ' STANLEY N. GERSHOFF, THOMAS J. GILL, III, SIMON J. SIMONIAN ANDARTHUR I. STEINBERG Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health and Laboratory of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

  47. Neuropeptide tyrosine and pain Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Austral University, Avenida Juan D. Perón 1500, Buenos Aires B1629 AHJ, Argentina, Inserm E0358, Institut Francois Magendie, University of Bordeaux 2, F-33077 Bordeaux, France,Available online 11 January 2007.

  48. Effects on Mood of Acute Phenylalanine/ Tyrosine Depletion in Healthy Women M. Leyton, Ph.D., S. N. Young, Ph.D., R. O. Pihl, Ph.D., S. Etezadi, C. Lauze, R.N., P. Blier, M.D., Ph.D., G. B. Baker, Ph.D., and C. Benkelfat, M.D.

  49. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in human, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760-5007 USA, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA, Received 7 February 1989, Available online 24 March 2003.

  50. Serretti, A., Macciardi, F., Verga, M., Cusin, C., Pedrini, S. and Smeraldi, E. (1998), Tyrosine hydroxylase gene associated with depressive symptomatology in mood disorder. Am. J. Med. Genet., 81: 127–130. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19980328)81:2<127::AID-AJMG1>3.0.CO;2-T

  51. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress, Department of Psychophysiology, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1111, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Received 22 March 1993, Accepted 4 August 1993, Available online 24 March 2003.

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